Category: History

Tunnels of San Cristobal

By Murat Tanyel | TrekEarth The Castil­lo de San Cristóbal is a for­mer Span­ish fort in San Juan, Puer­to Rico. It was built by Spain to pro­tect against land based attacks on the city of San Juan. It is part of San Juan Nation­al His­toric Site. Castil­lo de San Cristóbal is the largest for­ti­fi­ca­tion built by the Span­ish in the New World. When it was fin­ished in 1783, it cov­ered about 27 acres of land and basi­cal­ly wrapped around the city of San Juan. Entry to the city was sealed by San Cristóbal’s dou­ble gates. After close to one hun­dred years of rel­a­tive peace in the area, part of the for­ti­fi­ca­tion (about a third) was demol­ished in 1897 to help ease the flow of traf­fic in and out of the walled city. This was a dif­fi­cult pho­to. If I had used a flash, I would have blown out the walls of the tun­nel. Not using a flash guar­an­teed that the well-lit areas would be washed out. Since I applied heavy post pro­cess­ing to make it look pre­sentable, I am going to upload a copy of the orig­i­nal pho­to to the...

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Irish immigration to Puerto Rico

From Wikipedia, the free ency­clo­pe­dia From the 16th to the 19th cen­tu­ry, there was con­sid­er­able Irish immi­gra­tion to Puer­to Rico, for a num­ber of rea­sons. Dur­ing the 16th cen­tu­ry many Irish­men, who were known as “Wild Geese,” fled the Eng­lish Army and joined the Span­ish Army. Some of these men were sta­tioned in Puer­to Rico and remained there after their mil­i­tary ser­vice to Spain was com­plet­ed. Dur­ing the 18th cen­tu­ry men such as Field Mar­shal Ale­jan­dro O’Reilly and Colonel Tomas O’Daly were sent to the island to revamp the capital’s for­ti­fi­ca­tions. This led to an influx of Irish immi­gra­tion to the island. In 1797, the appoint­ed gov­er­nor of Puer­to Rico, Ramón de Cas­tro, ordered the expul­sion of the Irish from Puer­to Rico which led to protests from the local peo­ple of the island. Many Irish­men sur­vived the witch hunt cre­at­ed by Cas­tro and con­tin­ued to live in Puer­to Rico. The Span­ish gov­ern­ment mod­i­fied the Roy­al Decree of Graces of 1815 to encour­age Euro­peans of non-Span­ish ori­gin to immi­grate and pop­u­late the last two remain­ing Span­ish pos­ses­sions in the “New World,” Puer­to Rico and Cuba. Many Irish refugees who fled Ire­land because of the Irish Pota­to Famine of the 1840s which killed over one mil­lion Irish peo­ple immi­grat­ed to Puer­to Rico. These set­tlers were instru­men­tal in the devel­op­ment of the island’s sug­ar indus­try which was vital to the island’s econ­o­my....

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Spain returns 200-year-old remains of Puerto Rican hero to the island

post­ed by lis­apar­avisi­ni | April 8, 2013 | repeatingislands.com The 200-year-old remains of a Puer­to Rican hero arrived on the island Sat­ur­day after an exhaus­tive quest to iden­ti­fy his body and bring it home, the Asso­ci­at­ed Press reports. Hun­dreds of Puer­to Ricans cheered as Span­ish navy offi­cers wear­ing white uni­forms and bear­ing swords walked past the crowd hold­ing a large wood­en box that con­tained the bones of Ramon Pow­er y Giralt. Pow­er fought for admin­is­tra­tive and eco­nom­ic reforms in Puer­to Rico dur­ing Span­ish rule, and over­saw abo­li­tion of a law that gave Spain absolute pow­er over Puer­to Rican laws...

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Taíno people

This arti­cle is about the Indige­nous peo­ples of the Antilles.   The Taíno were sea­far­ing indige­nous peo­ples of the Bahamas, Greater Antilles, and the north­ern Less­er Antilles. They were one of the Arawak peo­ples of South Amer­i­ca,  and the Taíno lan­guage was a mem­ber of the Arawakan lan­guage fam­i­ly of north­ern South Amer­i­ca. At the time of Colum­bus’ arrival in 1492, there were five Taíno chief­doms and ter­ri­to­ries on His­pan­io­la (mod­ern day Haiti and Domini­can Repub­lic), each led by a prin­ci­pal Cacique (chief­tain), to whom trib­ute was paid. Cuba, the largest island on the Antilles, was orig­i­nal­ly divid­ed into...

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2012 America the Beautiful Quarter Design Proposals

Can­di­date designs for the 2012 Amer­i­ca the Beau­ti­ful Quar­ters are now avail­able. Although release of the coin is still more than a year away, the design process involves dif­fer­ent lev­els of review, which begin years before the actu­al cir­cu­la­tion release dates. For the third year of release, the series will present El Yunque Nation­al For­est in Puer­to Rico, Cha­co Cul­ture Nation­al His­tor­i­cal Park in New Mex­i­co, Aca­dia Nation­al Park in Maine, Hawaii Vol­ca­noes Nation­al Park in Hawaii, and Denali Nation­al Park in Alas­ka. For each of the releas­es, there were either four or five design can­di­dates pre­pared for review by the Com­mis­sion of Fine Arts and the Cit­i­zens Coinage Advi­so­ry Com­mit­tee. The feed­back and design rec­om­men­da­tions pro­vid­ed will be con­sid­ered by the Unit­ed States Trea­sury Sec­re­tary, who has the final author­i­ty for coinage designs. Images of design can­di­dates for the 2012 Amer­i­ca the Beau­ti­ful Quar­ters are shown below. 2012 El Yunque Nation­al For­est Quar­ter Two of the design can­di­dates fea­ture depic­tions of a water­fall, while the oth­ers focus on the ani­mal life with­in the for­est. Since El Yunque Nation­al For­est is the home to many endan­gered species, the CCAC and CFA both favored the ani­mal life designs in their reviews. Both endorsed a depic­tion of the endan­gered coqui frog and threat­ened Puer­to Rican...

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