Category: History

Tunnels of San Cristobal

By Murat Tanyel | TrekEarth The Castillo de San Cristóbal is a former Spanish fort in San Juan, Puerto Rico. It was built by Spain to protect against land based attacks on the city of San Juan. It is part of San Juan National Historic Site. Castillo de San Cristóbal is the largest fortification built by the Spanish in the New World. When it was finished in 1783, it covered about 27 acres of land and basically wrapped around the city of San Juan. Entry to the city was sealed by San Cristóbal’s double gates. After close to one hundred years of relative peace in the area, part of the fortification (about a third) was demolished in 1897 to help ease the flow of traffic in and out of the walled city. This was a difficult photo. If I had used a flash, I would have blown out the walls of the tunnel. Not using a flash guaranteed that the well-lit areas would be washed out. Since I applied heavy post processing to make it look presentable, I am going to upload a copy of the original photo to the...

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Irish immigration to Puerto Rico

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia From the 16th to the 19th century, there was considerable Irish immigration to Puerto Rico, for a number of reasons. During the 16th century many Irishmen, who were known as “Wild Geese,” fled the English Army and joined the Spanish Army. Some of these men were stationed in Puerto Rico and remained there after their military service to Spain was completed. During the 18th century men such as Field Marshal Alejandro O’Reilly and Colonel Tomas O’Daly were sent to the island to revamp the capital’s fortifications. This led to an influx of Irish immigration to the island. In 1797, the appointed governor of Puerto Rico, Ramón de Castro, ordered the expulsion of the Irish from Puerto Rico which led to protests from the local people of the island. Many Irishmen survived the witch hunt created by Castro and continued to live in Puerto Rico. The Spanish government modified the Royal Decree of Graces of 1815 to encourage Europeans of non-Spanish origin to immigrate and populate the last two remaining Spanish possessions in the “New World,” Puerto Rico and Cuba. Many Irish refugees who fled Ireland because of the Irish Potato Famine of the 1840s which killed over one million Irish people immigrated to Puerto Rico. These settlers were instrumental in the development of the island’s sugar industry which was vital to the island’s economy....

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Spain returns 200-year-old remains of Puerto Rican hero to the island

posted by lisaparavisini | April 8, 2013 | repeatingislands.com The 200-year-old remains of a Puerto Rican hero arrived on the island Saturday after an exhaustive quest to identify his body and bring it home, the Associated Press reports. Hundreds of Puerto Ricans cheered as Spanish navy officers wearing white uniforms and bearing swords walked past the crowd holding a large wooden box that contained the bones of Ramon Power y Giralt. Power fought for administrative and economic reforms in Puerto Rico during Spanish rule, and oversaw abolition of a law that gave Spain absolute power over Puerto Rican laws...

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Taíno people

This article is about the Indigenous peoples of the Antilles.   The Taíno were seafaring indigenous peoples of the Bahamas, Greater Antilles, and the northern Lesser Antilles. They were one of the Arawak peoples of South America,  and the Taíno language was a member of the Arawakan language family of northern South America. At the time of Columbus‘ arrival in 1492, there were five Taíno chiefdoms and territories on Hispaniola (modern day Haiti and Dominican Republic), each led by a principal Cacique (chieftain), to whom tribute was paid. Cuba, the largest island on the Antilles, was originally divided into...

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2012 America the Beautiful Quarter Design Proposals

Candidate designs for the 2012 America the Beautiful Quarters are now available. Although release of the coin is still more than a year away, the design process involves different levels of review, which begin years before the actual circulation release dates. For the third year of release, the series will present El Yunque National Forest in Puerto Rico, Chaco Culture National Historical Park in New Mexico, Acadia National Park in Maine, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park in Hawaii, and Denali National Park in Alaska. For each of the releases, there were either four or five design candidates prepared for review by the Commission of Fine Arts and the Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee. The feedback and design recommendations provided will be considered by the United States Treasury Secretary, who has the final authority for coinage designs. Images of design candidates for the 2012 America the Beautiful Quarters are shown below. 2012 El Yunque National Forest Quarter Two of the design candidates feature depictions of a waterfall, while the others focus on the animal life within the forest. Since El Yunque National Forest is the home to many endangered species, the CCAC and CFA both favored the animal life designs in their reviews. Both endorsed a depiction of the endangered coqui frog and threatened Puerto Rican...

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