Category: Misc

Tren Urbano (Urban Train)

The Tren Urbano (Eng­lish: Urban Train), is a 10.7-mile (17.2 km) ful­ly auto­mat­ed rapid tran­sit that serves the met­ro­pol­i­tan area of San Juan in Puer­to Rico, and has stops in the munic­i­pal­i­ties of San Juan, Bayamón and Guayn­abo. It is elec­tri­fied by third rail at 750 V DC. The Tren Urbano con­sists of 16 sta­tions along a sin­gle line. The Tren Urbano com­ple­ments oth­er forms of pub­lic trans­porta­tion on the island such as the pub­lic bus sys­tem, taxis, water fer­ries and shut­tles. The entire mass trans­porta­tion sys­tem has been dubbed the “Alter­na­ti­va de Trans­porte Inte­gra­do” (Inte­grat­ed Trans­porta­tion Alter­na­tive) or “ATI”. Tren...

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Crate Product Labels

Col­or­ful paper labels have been used to iden­ti­fy prod­ucts since the ear­ly 1880s. Intro­duced to Amer­i­ca by Euro­pean artists, this print­ing process became known as lith­o­g­ra­phy, the first com­mer­cial art. Orchard own­ers used this new con­cept of lith­o­g­ra­phy to bring atten­tion to their fruit. In the 1950’s, the devel­op­ment of pre-print­ed card­board box­es caused wood­en crates with paper labels to be a thing of the...

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Female Sterilization

There are a num­ber of exam­ples in post Civ­il War Amer­i­ca of eugenic pro­grams but none as effec­tive and wide­spread as the mass female ster­il­iza­tion in Puer­to Rico. Begin­ning in the years fol­low­ing WW I, a pro­gram was ini­ti­at­ed by the Unit­ed States gov­ern­ment, the med­ical com­mu­ni­ty and the local gov­ern­ment of Puer­to Rico, to name a few, which result­ed in the unprece­dent­ed ster­il­iza­tion of 1⁄3 of the female pop­u­la­tion by 1965, and the con­tin­ued use of ster­il­iza­tion on a broad scale by Puer­to Rican women as a form of birth con­trol READ FULL STORY...

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San Juan Coat of Arms

San Juan, from San Juan Bautista “Saint John the Bap­tist ”) is the cap­i­tal and largest munic­i­pal­i­ty in Puer­to Rico. San Juan was found­ed by Span­ish colonists in 1521, who called it Ciu­dad de Puer­to Rico (“Rich Port City”). Sev­er­al his­tor­i­cal build­ings are locat­ed in San Juan; among the most notable are the city’s for­mer defen­sive forts, Fort San Felipe del Mor­ro and Fort San Cristo­bál, and La For­t­aleza, the old­est exec­u­tive man­sion in con­tin­u­ous use in the Amer­i­c­as.). Today, San Juan serves as one of Puer­to Rico’s most impor­tant sea­ports, and is the island’s man­u­fac­tur­ing, finan­cial, cul­tur­al, and...

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The Changing of the Guard: Puerto Rico in 1898

by Maris­abel Brás, Ph.D. Of all Span­ish colo­nial pos­ses­sions in the Amer­i­c­as, Puer­to Rico is the only ter­ri­to­ry that nev­er gained its inde­pen­dence.  Inter­nal and geopo­lit­i­cal dynam­ics dur­ing the last quar­ter of the nine­teenth cen­tu­ry, nev­er­the­less, brought dra­mat­ic polit­i­cal, social, and eco­nom­ic changes to the island, set­ting the stage for the devel­op­ment of its nation­al insti­tu­tions and the trans­for­ma­tion of its polit­i­cal sys­tem as a Unit­ed States ter­ri­to­ry dur­ing the twen­ti­eth cen­tu­ry. After four cen­turies of Span­ish colo­nial rule, the peri­od between 1860 and 1898 wit­nessed a pro-inde­pen­dence rebel­lion, colo­nial reform, the estab­lish­ment of the first nation­al polit­i­cal par­ties,...

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