Category: Misc

Tren Urbano (Urban Train)

The Tren Urbano (English: Urban Train), is a 10.7-mile (17.2 km) fully automated rapid transit that serves the metropolitan area of San Juan in Puerto Rico, and has stops in the municipalities of San Juan, Bayamón and Guaynabo. It is electrified by third rail at 750 V DC. The Tren Urbano consists of 16 stations along a single line. The Tren Urbano complements other forms of public transportation on the island such as the public bus system, taxis, water ferries and shuttles. The entire mass transportation system has been dubbed the “Alternativa de Transporte Integrado” (Integrated Transportation Alternative) or...

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Crate Product Labels

Colorful paper labels have been used to identify products since the early 1880s. Introduced to America by European artists, this printing process became known as lithography, the first commercial art. Orchard owners used this new concept of lithography to bring attention to their fruit. In the 1950’s, the development of pre-printed cardboard boxes caused wooden crates with paper labels to be a thing of the...

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Female Sterilization

There are a number of examples in post Civil War America of eugenic programs but none as effective and widespread as the mass female sterilization in Puerto Rico. Beginning in the years following WW I, a program was initiated by the United States government, the medical community and the local government of Puerto Rico, to name a few, which resulted in the unprecedented sterilization of 1/3 of the female population by 1965, and the continued use of sterilization on a broad scale by Puerto Rican women as a form of birth control READ FULL STORY...

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San Juan Coat of Arms

San Juan, from San Juan Bautista “Saint John the Baptist “) is the capital and largest municipality in Puerto Rico. San Juan was founded by Spanish colonists in 1521, who called it Ciudad de Puerto Rico (“Rich Port City”). Several historical buildings are located in San Juan; among the most notable are the city’s former defensive forts, Fort San Felipe del Morro and Fort San Cristobál, and La Fortaleza, the oldest executive mansion in continuous use in the Americas.). Today, San Juan serves as one of Puerto Rico’s most important seaports, and is the island’s manufacturing, financial, cultural, and...

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The Changing of the Guard: Puerto Rico in 1898

by Marisabel Brás, Ph.D. Of all Spanish colonial possessions in the Americas, Puerto Rico is the only territory that never gained its independence.  Internal and geopolitical dynamics during the last quarter of the nineteenth century, nevertheless, brought dramatic political, social, and economic changes to the island, setting the stage for the development of its national institutions and the transformation of its political system as a United States territory during the twentieth century. After four centuries of Spanish colonial rule, the period between 1860 and 1898 witnessed a pro-independence rebellion, colonial reform, the establishment of the first national political parties,...

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