Category: Misc

The Changing of the Guard: Puerto Rico in 1898

by Maris­abel Brás, Ph.D. Of all Span­ish colo­nial pos­ses­sions in the Amer­i­c­as, Puer­to Rico is the only ter­ri­to­ry that nev­er gained its inde­pen­dence.  Inter­nal and geopo­lit­i­cal dynam­ics dur­ing the last quar­ter of the nine­teenth cen­tu­ry, nev­er­the­less, brought dra­mat­ic polit­i­cal, social, and eco­nom­ic changes to the island, set­ting the stage for the devel­op­ment of its nation­al insti­tu­tions and the trans­for­ma­tion of its polit­i­cal sys­tem as a Unit­ed States ter­ri­to­ry dur­ing the twen­ti­eth cen­tu­ry. After four cen­turies of Span­ish colo­nial rule, the peri­od between 1860 and 1898 wit­nessed a pro-inde­pen­dence rebel­lion, colo­nial reform, the estab­lish­ment of the first nation­al polit­i­cal par­ties,...

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Utuado Uprising

The Utu­a­do Upris­ing, also known as the Utu­a­do Revolt or El Gri­to de Utu­a­do, refers to the revolt against the Unit­ed States gov­ern­ment in Puer­to Rico which occurred on Octo­ber 30, 1950 in var­i­ous local­i­ties in Puer­to Rico and which in Utu­a­do cul­mi­nat­ed in the “Utu­a­do mas­sacre”. Events leading to the revolt On Sep­tem­ber 17, 1922, the Puer­to Rican Nation­al­ist Par­ty was formed. Jose Coll y Cuchi, a for­mer mem­ber of the Union Par­ty, was elect­ed its first pres­i­dent. He want­ed rad­i­cal changes with­in the econ­o­my and social wel­fare pro­grams of Puer­to Rico. In 1924, Pedro Albizu Cam­pos, a lawyer...

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Ponce Massacre

On March 21, 1937, Ponce was involved in an inci­dent called the Ponce Mas­sacre. The inci­dent occurred as a result of a march orga­nized in Ponce on Palm Sun­day by the Puer­to Rican Nation­al­ist Par­ty. The women were dressed in white, as nurs­es of the Red Cross. The men wore all white or a black shirt and white pants. Some of the oth­er adults wore cadet uni­forms of a Lib­er­a­tion Army, the gath­ered group were the Cadets of the Repub­lic and the Daugh­ters of Lib­er­ty.  The march was orga­nized to com­mem­o­rate the end of slav­ery in 1873 and to...

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